Spectroscopic And Chromatographic Methods For Detection Of Adulteration In Liquid Petroleum And Biomass Fuels: A Review
Gubihama Joel* and Linus N. Okoro
Department of Petroleum Chemistry, School of Arts and Sciences, American University of Nigeria, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria
Keywords: Fuel Adulteration, fluorescence spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, principal component analysis
Ubiquitously, people mix liquid fuels with contaminants with the aim of increasing the total quantity of the overall product. This activity commonly referred to as adulteration, disrupts the chemical composition of liquid fuels thereby reducing their quality and operation standard. Fuel adulteration is an illegal activity worldwide due to its hazardous effects to mankind and other living organisms. It causes harmful greenhouse gases to be released into the atmosphere which causes atmospheric pollution. Other effects include engine malfunction or knocking. Fuel adulteration is also found in biodiesel production using transesterification reaction when impurities such as soap, glycerol, excess alcohol and water are formed. Overall, it is imperative to constantly check the quality of liquid fuels. Scientists have recorded great strides over the years in this regard. This review will focus on the traditional laboratory techniques which utilize atomic and molecular analysis as well as separation methods.
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